The English Civil War broke out in 1642 between the supporters of King Charles I and Parliament. Before the war, they had argued over religious policy, foreign policy and taxation. Charles had even tried to rule without Parliament between 1629 and 1640.
In 1646, King Charles I was forced to surrender and he gave himself up to the Scottish army at Southwell in Nottinghamshire. This was an attempt to secure a deal, but the Scots handed the King over to Parliament in exchange for money that was owed to their soldiers. The King was imprisoned. Whilst apparently negotiating a settlement, he engineered a Second Civil War. Some Parliamentarians felt it was impossible to make peace with the King. He was tried and executed for treason in 1649.
The period between 1649 and 1660 is known as the Interregnum. The country was a republic which means it had no king. However, from 1653 until his death in 1658, Oliver Cromwell ruled England as Lord Protector. He was succeeded by his son Richard. Richard was removed from power by the army after six months. Following a period of confusion, Charles I’s son was invited to return to England as King in 1660. He was known as King Charles II. The return of the King was called the Restoration.
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